Components Of A Building


Components Of A Building:

A building can be divided into two general categories

1. Sub-Structure:

It is the portion of a building situated underneath the surrounding ground.

2. Superstructure:

The portion which is situated above the ground level is called superstructure.


The components of a building can be further classified as under:

1. Foundation:

Foundation is the lowest part of a structure below the ground level which transfers all the loads (dead load, live load etc) to the soil.

2. Plinth:

The Portion of a building between the ground surrounding the building and the top floor just above the ground is termed as plinth. Plinth is provided to prevent the surface water from entering the building.

3. DPC:

DPC or damp proof course is a layer of waterproofing materials like asphalt, bitumen, waterproof cement etc on which the walls are constructed.

4. Walls:

Walls are the vertical members on which the roof finally rests. Walls are provided to divide the floor space in the desired pattern. Walls provide privacy, security, and protects from the sun, rain wind, cold etc.

5. Column:

Columns are the isolated load bearing member which carry the axial compressive load of a structure.

6. Floors:

Floors can be defined as flat supporting elements dividing a building into different levels ( e.g first floor, second floor etc) to create more accommodation on a given land. They provide a firm and dry platform for people and other items like furniture, equipment, stores etc.

7. Doors, Windows, and Ventilation:

Doors are provided as a barrier secured in an opening left in a wall to access the building, room or passage.

A window may be defined as an opening left in a wall for the purpose of providing daylight, vision, natural air, and ventilation.

8. Stairs:

Stairs can be defined as a structure comprising a number of steps arranged in a series connecting one floor to another. Stairs are used to access various floors of the building.

9. Roof:

A roof is the topmost part of a building which covers the space below and protects from rain, direct sunlight, snow, the wind etc.

10. Building Finishes:

Building finishes include items like plastering, pointing, washing, varnishing, painting, distempering etc.

11. Building Services:

Building services include services like water supply, drainage, lighting, sanitation, electricity, acoustics, ventilation, heating, air conditioning, fire detection, and control etc.

Also Read – How To Select Site For Building Construction.
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