Materials Used In Bridge Construction:
The various materials commonly used in bridge construction are as following:
1. Ordinary Rolled Steel:
This material is used in rolled steel section such as buckled plates, corrugated plates, through plates, H-sections, I-sections, angles, reinforcing bars, rivets etc.
The buckled and corrugated plates are mainly used to support pavements of highway bridge and the through plates are used to carry railway ties in ballast.
H-sections are used for small columns for highway bridges as well as heavy built-up columns.
Angle sections are used as stiffeners for making plate girders and as members of steel trusses.
Reinforcing bars are used as reinforcement for RCC bridges.
2. Cast Steel:
Steel castings are used in movable bridges.
3. Alloy Steel:
Alloy steel of different classes is used in rivet steel, plate and shape steel, eye bar steel, etc, because they are more strong, tough, workable, reliable and economical than ordinary and cast steel.
4. Wrought Iron:
Wrought iron is occasionally used for the bangers and suspenders in highway bridge construction.
5. Wire Rope:
This material is used in movable spans.
Wires are used in reinforced concrete and cheap fences and railings of highway bridges.
Cables are used for the construction of cable-stayed bridges.
This material is used in highway pressure bearings.
Timber is mainly used in highway bridge floor in the hilly area. But nowadays its use is being gradually reduced.
This material was formerly much used for masonry work for piers and arches of bridges. But nowadays this material is being replaced by concrete.
Bricks are commonly used for the construction of abutments and piers of culverts and other small bridges.
Gravel is used as coarse aggregate for concrete.
Sand is extensively used as fine aggregates for concrete bridges.
Portland cement is commonly used as binding material in mortar and concrete for bridge construction.
This material is used for maintaining the steel and timber work of bridges.