Precautions In Construction Of Tunnels:
For economic safe and quick construction of tunnels, the following precautions should be taken:
1. The shape of the tunnel should be decided according to its purpose.
2. Cross-sectional dimensions of the tunnel should be decided to achieve economy in its construction.
3. Economic calculations for extent of equipment and labour should be made before starting the tunnel construction.
4. The pattern of blasting the material in different locations should be decided for maintaining speed of driving and safety.
5. The sequence of operations must be decided so that proper use of labor and equipment is made.
6. Labour should be well organized to maintain continuous progress of the tunneling operations.
7. Outdated or unsuitable tools should not be used.
8. Care should be taken to see that every operation is completed at scheduled time.
9. The Excavated material should be piled up in a manner suitable to the method of loading being employed.
10. loading and hauling of muck should be carried out efficiently.
11. The sequence and type of lining should be determined in advance to achieve economy.
12. Selection of multipurpose and uniform type of equipment should be made, according to the size and shape of the tunnel.