In this foundation, a thin member made of steel, concrete or wood is inserted into the poor ground (Soil having low bearing capacity) for transferring the load of a superstructure. The load can be transmitted to a strong soil layer by friction or by bearing.
Purpose Of Pile Foundation:
- The main purpose of a pile foundation is to transfer the loads into a strong stratum.
- Generally, pile foundations are used when the bearing capacity of soil is very low and the structural load is heavy.
- Compressible soil and waterlogged soil is ideal for this type of foundations.
- Piles are mostly suitable for the foundation of high-rise buildings, bridges, piers, docks etc.
Classification Of Pile Foundation:
Depending upon the function, material and method of installation pile foundation can be further classified into following categories;
Classification Depending Upon The Function Of Piles:
1. Bearing Piles:
Bearing piles are the pile that is driven through a soft soil until it reaches to a stronger base. These piles are used as piers to support the superstructure and to transmit the load into a safe stratum.
2. Friction Piles:
When piles are compelled through a soft and weak soil by developing friction between surrounding earth and outside of the pile, it is known as friction pile.
3. Sheet piles:
These piles are used on a rare occasion like retaining wall construction. It helps to minimize the lateral subsidence of retaining soil.
4. Anchor Piles:
This pile opposes the horizontal pull by providing anchorage slip.
5. Batter Piles:
Batter piles are used to prevent horizontal and inclined forces.
6. Fender Piles:
When ships are bounded at the deck, the concrete deck being damaged. This injury of concrete deck is protected by fender piles.
7. Compaction Piles:
Compaction piles are used to increase the bearing capacity of granular soil.
Classification Depending Upon The Materials Of Piles:
- Timber piles.
- Concrete Piles.
- Steel Piles.
Also Read: Difference Between One Way Slab and Two Way Slab
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